1. Although（更书面）= though(更口语) = even if (即使，更偏假设性) = even though（虽然，更偏事实性）+句子
Devoted though we are to prosperity and freedom, we cannot shake off the judgmental strand of justice. 用倒装
2. No matter how/what/who等 = 疑问句+ever
No matter who/Whoever you are, you must keep the law.
Whoever（≠ no matter who）comes will be welcome.
3. …, as long as…
You can do what you want, as long as you like.
4. 名词/表语/动词+ as（though）倒装，。。。，表“纵使”
Object as/though you may, I’ll go。
Small as atoms are, they are made up of still smaller units。
Lover of towns as I am, I realize that I owe a debt to my early country life.
5. Whether…or… 正反两方面，。。。表“不论。。。与否”
Whether you believe it or not, it's true.
You'll have to attend the ceremony whether you're free or busy.
6. Be原型+主语+表语（n, adj）= whether+主语+be动词+表语（n, adj）。不论。一文学性强的虚拟语气，表让步。
Be it historical tradition, faith and culture, or social system, values and level of development, those countries or regions are often different from one another.
7. Despite+n/ving = in spite of 尽管. （不能加句子）
Despite the fact that + 句子（太累赘）
Despite myself, … 情不自禁地…
Her words were so satirical（讽刺的）that I lost my temper in spite of myself。
8. Notwithstanding +sth尽管
But notwithstanding its ancient lineage, it is open to the following challenge.
9. Albeit 虽然即使
You are to be given one method of communication with your rival, albeit indirect communication.
As a result of sth. =As a consequence of sth由于sth, sth是原因。
Owing to sth 介词
Thanks to... （后面原因一般是积极性的）
By virtue of sth
On account of
Be due to
Owe to sth 动词
Account for=result in 表示导致
Systematic economic forces account for the disastrous loses.
He attributed the opposition to a deep-seated attitude in military.
Sth would explain why …
For this reason，...
For one reason or another, 由于某种原因（不具体指明）
His travel articles are always, for one reason or another, fascinating.
For one thing, 在众多原因中指出其中一个
A lot of people don’t take the time to read contracts. For one thing, they’re often in very tiny print.
On this/that account， 由于这个、那个原因
She was divorced, and on that account alone my mother disliked her.
The reason why+结果/ that+原因
Greed is the reason why they do not deserve the money.
This outcome will result in children starting bullying younger ones.
Excessive greed is therefore a vice that a good society should discourage if it can.
As a result 最终，因此，结果
As a consequence/In consequence,...
Should law be neutral towards competing conceptions of virtue, so that people can be free to choose for themselves the best way to live?
In order that
Regular checks are required in order that safety standards are maintained.
To do sth,…
To answer it, we have to explore the meaning of justice.
In order to do sth
In order to determine who deserves what, we have to determine what virtues are worthy of honor and reward.
For the sake of sth=For sth’s sake 为了sth的目的
I hope you’re not doing this just for the sake of the money.
For clarity’s sake, I’d like to reword my statement.
And yet we worry when judgments about virtue finds their way into laws.
On the contrary
Instead, a just society respects each people’s freedom to choose his or her own conception of the good life.
Instead of sth
As opposed to 表示与前述对象的反转对比
The cost of these planes is £3 million, as opposed to the £2 million charged by their competitors.
Rather than. 并不是、而不、并没有, 前后对等
Be honest rather than clever.诚实胜于机巧。
This policy might lead them to stay in harm’s way rather than flee to safety.
Rather than press for maximum advantages, people look out for one another.
Ancient theories start with virtue while modern theories start with freedom.
On the other hand,
By/In comparison/contrast 对比之下
Their lives were exciting and glamorous; ours seemed dull by comparison.
The virtue argument, by contrast, rests on the judgment that greed is a vice that state should discourage.
In/By comparison with sth介词
This essay will briefly review the cons and pros of imprisonment in comparison with job training.
By comparison with the lively teenagers, the adults were a joyless lot.
They have sacrificed as surely, and as honorably, as those who have lost a limb.
The same as
Tourists find this park just the same as the one they visited previously.
In the same way/manner
In addition to sth,
In addition to outlining the causes of this problem, this essay will also propose solutions.
Apart from B…其有两个意思，既可以：除了B（包括B），也表示：除了B（不包括B）
The likes of 就像
Their purchases of necessities like safe lodging are forced.
…is a case in point. 正在点儿上，指例子可以很好地阐述这个观点
Here is a case where…指出例子
Here is a case where the economy as a whole seemed to outweigh considerations of fairness.
Take ... as an example 以。。。为例
In some instances. 在某些情况中
If its price is higher, manufacturers will find it worth their while to produce more goods.
Given/provided/providing+名词/that 从句， 考虑到、假如
You can go out to play provided that you finish your homework first.
It’s a lot easier to get good marks on a short-answer question, providing you do it well.
The rebels say they are ready to stop fighting, but only if the prisoners are released.
On condition that，以。。。为前提，只有
This switch can be used to disengage the autopilot system should a malfunction occur in the system.
Should it rain tomorrow， the meeting would be put off.
In other words,
Prosperity matters, in other words, because it contributes to our welfare.
That is, that is to say,
Some groups, namely students and pensioners, will benefit from the new tax.
A as well as B, 强调as前的名词或者形容词A, 不仅B，而且A
We must learn to look at problems all-sidedly,seeing the reverse as well as the obverse side of things. 强调要看到reverse即反面
not only A, but also B, 不同上，强调后面B，不仅A，而且B
He is a statesman as well as a scholar=He is no less a statesman than a scholar=He is not only a scholar but also a statesman.
and...A...as well. 则强调A
Some economists argued that the law was misconceived.
Some believed that the exchange of goods should be governed by a just price.
Acknowledge that. 承认，一般表示某人承认，之后会转折
I have to acknowledge that it has the advantage of high efficiency.
Defenders of this law maintain that, under certain conditions, the free market is not truly free.
Many people hold that government should be neutral on matters of virtue and vice.
Those who insist that only bleeding wounds should be count believe that …
Claim that 声称
The veteran’s group claimed that doing so would “debase” the honor.
As he points out, buyers under duress have no freedom.
Some people favor abortion rights, and others consider abortion to be murder.
Whereas some consider it an form of reverse discrimination against people who deserve admission on their merits.
Be of the opinion that
I am of the opinion that car ownership should be discouraged.
From a personal point of view,..
From a personal point of view, it is essential to reduce non-essential travel.
Sb’s point is that…某人的意思是
Plato’s point is that to grasp the meaning of justice and the nature of the good life, we must rise above from the prejudices and routines of everyday life.
Favor sth/doing sth
The captain favors including mental injuries.
Some defend affirmative actions in college admissions as a way of righting past wrongs.
My firm conviction is that punishment does not has much of a role to play in this.
Argue against. 反对
Jeff, a pro-market commentator writing the book Boston Globe, argued against this law.
Jim rejected the notion that these “unconscionable” prices reflected a truly free exchange.
A civilized country should reject the torture of terror suspects.
The argument for or against sth. 对某话题的支持/反对观点
We should also consider one further argument for this law.
A veteran’s group opposed awarding the medal for psychological injuries.
Citizens of pluralist societies disagree about such things?
Therefore I have to disagree almost entirely with the given statement.
Not surprisingly, the opponents of this law invoke these two similar arguments for free markets.
It is true that…but…用于承认一方后，强调另一方
advantages and disadvantages
Its advantages overweigh its disadvantages.
pros and cons
strengths and weaknesses
merits and demerits
benefits and problems
Even if high prices call forth a greater supply of goods, this benefit has to be weighed against the burden such prices impose on those least to afford them.
On the plus/positive/negative side
On the downside
sth do more good than harm
A Outweigh B，A超出B，更重要，用以连接上述的优缺点词汇
The possible benefits outweigh the risks involved.
So we can conclude that ….
In brief/in summary/conclusion
According to/Based on
According to the textbook context, this question divides ancient and modern political thought.
It is said that…据说
It seems that
The focus of … is on sth.
The focus of this essay is on the causes of and solutions to this problem.
In terms of/ regarding/concerning/ when it comes to sth/as for/for/with regard to/with respect to关于、至于，talking about/speaking of 比较口语化
PART 2 重要句式结构
What I am proficient in is ancient Chinese literature.
That’s where he met me.
All those eligible will receive a cash handout.
The new law clearly benefits those earning the most money.
Only 18 percent of those surveyed opposed the idea.
I'm going to sort these old books into those to be kept and those to be thrown away.
Have some consideration for those without a job.
Only those who had booked in advance were allowed in.
We must try to find out those which may be attacked most easily.
This disease is more likely to strike those whose immune systems are already below par.
The poems which he wrote in the countryside are generally agreed to be those in which he found his true voice.
He who can be a best servant can be a best leader.